Lari, P., Rose, A., Ernst, J. V., Kelly, D. P., & DeLuca, V. W. (2019). Action research. Technology and Engineering Teacher, 79(2), 23-27.
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Research questions should be concise, such as: o How do students understand the concept of constraints as it affects engineering design? o To what extent does classroom instruction align with workplace readiness skills? o Will students' understanding of engineering constraints be improved by using a jigsaw method of cooperative learning? o How does a group design activity affect the individual accountability of students? o Is role assignment an effective strategy in the classroom for encouraging female participation in technology-related activities? Qualitative data may be gathered by video recording student activities, conducting in-depth interviews with students or parents, making direct observations of student behavior and taking notes, or conducting a thematic review of student assignments and journals or archival school documents. [...]qualitative data is fundamentally descriptive in nature and is expressed in narratives, visuals, and videos. Qualitative Data Analysis and Interpretation: Since qualitative data is expressed in narratives, images, and videos, the analysis of qualitative data typically requires an extensive analysis process consisting of transcription, iterative thematic review, coding text, data visualization, seeking additional sources of information that confirms emerging conclusions, and external validation from an independent evaluator. An examination of the descriptive statistics for Strategy A (M=38, SD=6.2) and Strategy B (M=38.5, SD=6.5) also suggests the advantage to Strategy B. Yet, only by using more sophisticated statistical procedures, such as a t-Test or Mann-Whitney U, could the teacher-researcher confirm that this difference in average scores did not occur by chance or error and then conclude that Strategy B is better than Strategy A. Even seasoned researchers seek assistance from statisticians and evaluators to help with data analysis, so don't hesitate to seek assistance from colleagues with these analytical tasks.