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Calabrese, E. (1993, January 1). A Plan for Enhancing Student Achievement in an Eleventh Grade Large Classroom American History Course through a Multicultural Curriculum.
This practicum was designed to increase student achievement and to motivate 11th grade U.S. history students to consistently complete homework assignments, to actively participate in classroom discussions, and to perform with a passing grade of "C" or above on all examinations. This paper describes the development of a multicultural curriculum and its implementation in a large classroom U.S. history course. The curriculum was developed for a class of 200 students from a student body with an ethnic composition of 56 percent Hispanic, 31 percent black, 13 percent white, and one percent Asian American/Indian. The textbook that had been in use gave inadequate attention to minority groups and women, so that these students did not feel they were an integral part of the U.S. history experience. The curriculum was designed to encourage active student involvement in their course work. It emphasized the use of guest speakers; hands on discovery learning projects designed to enhance knowledge of the diverse cultural heritage of students in the United States; and group projects and oral history projects designed to expand each student's sense of the relevance of U.S. history to today's world. Results indicated that, as a result of implementation, students were significantly more involved in and enthusiastic about U.S. history than in previous classes. Students achieved higher levels of performance than in prior classes. The appendices include specific performance standards of U.S. history; and a competency based curriculum for U.S. history. Contains 17 references.
Harris, M. (1995). Multiculturalist in Training: A High School Teacher's Experience in Developing a Multicultural Curriculum. Teaching And Change, 2(3), 275-92.
This article is available through interlibrary loan.
Describes one teacher's evolving beliefs about teaching cultural diversity: she has moved from a traditional textbook-oriented formula for teaching U.S. history to one that uses a greater breadth of materials and resources. Student writing reflects critical thinking about and understanding of the points of view of many diverse interest groups.
Hilliard III, A. G. (1991). Why We Must Pluralize the Curriculum. Educational Leadership, 49(4), 12-16.
This article discusses pluralism in U.S. curriculum. The primary goal of a pluralistic curriculum process is to present a truthful and meaningful rendition of the whole human experience. Curriculum equity in the schools must be considered from two angles. On the one hand, the academic level of the content can be pitched much higher and yet be well within reach of the masses of the children, provided that teachers equitably distribute high-quality instruction. On the other hand, educators must awaken to the fact that no academic content is neutral nor is the specific cultural content of any ethnic group universal in and of itself. Pluralism in the curriculum is not a matter of trivial pursuit. Many of the justifications the media give for a multicultural curriculum are minor and irrelevant to the central issue: editorial arguments about self-esteem and the role of multicultural curriculum in producing academic achievement. Curriculum change must proceed from the assumption that there is truth in the whole of human experience. Schools must also accept the fact that some racial and ethnic groups have endured years of systematic defamation that has distorted, denied and deformed the truth of their cultural and historical reality.
Ukpokodu, O. N. (2010). How a Sustainable Campus-Wide Diversity Curriculum Fosters Academic Success. Multicultural Education, 17(2), 27-36.
Many faculty and college instructors continue to be complacent with monocultural curricula, while interacting with students from diverse racial, ethnic, gender, social, and linguistic backgrounds. To assist these faculty to embrace diversity curriculum infusion, it is critical to scaffold the process for them. This article describes one institution's sustained program that empowers its faculty across units, departments, and disciplines, to successfully engage in curricular and pedagogical transformation in a non-threatening, synergetic, collegial, and collaborative environment.
Williams-Carter, D. (1999). Do We Need a Multicultural Curriculum?.
Today's U.S. communities include European Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans among their many diverse cultural groups. America is composed of many different people from a variety of backgrounds and cultures. Regardless of cultural differences, many of these people make valuable contributions to U.S. society and will continue to do so in the future. Advocates of multiculturalism are concerned with how teachers are providing instruction for the diverse groups of children in their classrooms. Teachers are being held accountable for meeting the needs of all children in their classrooms, regardless of cultural differences. Therefore, teachers need a curriculum that incorporates diversity and makes allowances for the diverse groups of students they teach. Failure to embrace multiculturalism allows members of society to continue to promote prejudice and racism. Opponents of multiculturalism disagree with the need for a change from the traditional curriculum to one that embraces diversity. Teachers are a key element in the process of incorporating multiculturalism into the curriculum, and they can enhance or inhibit the learning process. Multiculturalism should be embedded into the existing curriculum. Successful implementation of a multicultural curriculum will prepare today's students to become tomorrow's leaders.
Davis, J. R. (2007). Making a Difference: How Teachers Can Positively Affect Racial Identity and Acceptance in America. Social Studies, 98(5), 209-214.
The author examines the important role schools, teachers, and the high school social studies classroom can play in helping students develop positive racial identities. Using the Classroom-based Multicultural Democratic Education framework, the author argues that high school social studies teachers need to adapt pedagogical strategies and curricula to foster racial tolerance, understanding, and respect within the classroom and for individual students. This is necessary training to prepare students for life in a racially strained American society. Teachers can help students achieve a positive racial identity by (1) understanding students' racial and cultural backgrounds, (2) providing students with a more diverse, multicultural curriculum, and (3) generating cooperative learning between students.
Charles, H., Longerbeam, S. D., & Miller, A. E. (2013). Putting Old Tensions to Rest: Integrating Multicultural Education and Global Learning to Advance Student Development. Journal Of College And Character, 14(1), 47-57.
This article is available through interlibrary loan
Multicultural education and global learning have long been acknowledged by higher education professionals to be necessary in advancing student development. Both of these agendas overlap in significant ways and can be characterized as two sides of the same coin. Notwithstanding, there has been a historical divide, even a tension between these two elements, that has resulted in their moving on separate tracks towards the same goal of student development. This article discusses a successful approach that uses learning outcomes as the mechanism to integrate these two elements in order to achieve meaningful student development.
Martin, D. (2014). Good education for all? Student race and identity development in the multicultural classroom. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 39, 110-123.
This study examined the role of ethnic identity in students’ responses to a multicultural curriculum. Specifically, it tested group differences in the key premise of multicultural education, which is that learning about other groups affects students’ identity formation and that this learning translates into skills critical to academic success, intergroup harmony, and promotion of democratic values. The results provided partial support of the hypothesis. Participating in a curriculum focusing on race and ethnicity yielded more benefits to White than non-White students, suggesting that Whites may be uniquely positioned to benefit from multiculturalism. Possible mechanisms underlying the different outcomes of multicultural education for various groups of students are discussed.
Ndura, E., & Dogbevia, M. K. (2013). Re-envisioning Multicultural Education in Diverse Academic Contexts. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 93, 1015-1019.
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The authors, who respectively represent a large research institution and a small Liberal Arts college located in different geographic and sociocultural contexts, compare and contrast institutional multicultural education policies and practices. Drawing from their current research and the vast literature focusing on equitable and inclusive education, they articulate recommendations for re-envisioning multicultural education to enhance teaching and learning in all subject areas and across diverse academic contexts.
Gottfredson, N. C., Panter, A. T., Daye, C. E., Allen, W. A., Wightman, L. F., & Deo, M. E. (2008). Does diversity at undergraduate institutions influence student outcomes?. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 1(2), 80.
Using two separate samples, this study establishes and replicates a model of the
influence of two types of educational diversity on student outcomes. Study 1, using survey data regarding undergraduate experiences from a volunteer sample of 1,963 incoming law students, confirms measurement models for diversity and outcome constructs and tests models predicting student outcomes from Classroom Diversity and Contact Diversity. Study 2 utilizes data from a nationally representative sample of 6,100 incoming law students to replicate results from Study 1. Both studies find a positive relationship between diversity and educational outcomes. Results suggest that institutions of higher education should support informal interactions between students of diverse backgrounds and should encourage students to enroll in courses dealing with diversity.
Strayhorn, T. L. (2010). The influence of diversity on learning outcomes among African American college students: Measuring sex differences. Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 47(3), 339-362.
This article is available through interlibrary loan.
National survey data from 594 African American college students were analyzed using descriptive and multivariate statistical techniques to measure the impact of diversity on educational outcomes. Two research questions guided the present study: (a) How do interactional diversity experiences affect learning and development outcomes for African American undergraduates attending 4-year institutions? (b) Does this relationship vary between Black men and women? Results suggest that interactional diversity experiences are positively associated with perceived student learning across all six domains; interactional diversity is one of the strongest, consistent predictors of perceived learning included in the statistical models. Models explain different proportions of the variance in dependent variables, ranging from 16% to 23%. Implications for future policy, practice, and research are discussed.
Diversity Integrated Curriculum